Each of these verbs is used to describe when someone takes something that doesn’t belong to them. But, as is usually the case, they’re used slightly differently.
Basically, we use steal when we want to focus on what was stolen, and rob when we want to focus on who the victim was.
I have been robbed! Who stole the secret documents from my safe? Help! Police!
We can include both pieces of information (what was stolen and who was robbed) in the same sentence, thanks to different prepositions:
Only one man is daring enough to steal documents directly from your safe, sir.
Only one man is daring enough to rob you of your secret documents!
I wish I knew…
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